Total ankle and shoulder replacement procedures have become more common in recent years, though without a focus on the effects of implant wear and performance. In vivo tests should be undertaken to assess the true load-motion profiles to be carried out during mechanical testing.
Currently, ankle and shoulder prosthetics are tested using modified knee and hip simulators. Despite the lack of implant-specific TAR and TSR wear simulators, some valuable data has been retrieved using present methods—as can be observed in the case studies provided in the following complimentary white paper.
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